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International Journal of Control and Automation (IJCA)

Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed with minimal human assistance. Automation or automatic control is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications and vehicles with minimal or reduced human intervention.

Automation covers applications ranging from a household thermostat controlling a boiler, to a large industrial control system with ten of thousands of input measurements and output control signals. In control complexity, it can range from simple on-off control to multi-variable high-level algorithms.

In the simplest type of an automatic control loop, a controller compares a measured value of a process with a desired set value, and processes the resulting error signal to change some input to the process, in such a way that the process stays at its set point despite disturbances. This closed-loop control is an application of negative feedback to a system. The mathematical basis of control theory was begun in the 18th century and advanced rapidly in the 20th.

Automation has been achieved by various means including mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, electronic devices and computers, usually in combination. Complicated systems, such as modern factories, airplanes and ships typically use all these combined techniques. The benefit of automation includes labor savings, savings in electricity costs, savings in material costs, and improvements to quality, accuracy, and precision.

The World Bank's World Development Report 2019 shows evidence that the new industries and jobs in the technology sector outweigh the economic effects of workers being displaced by automation.

The term automation, inspired by the earlier word automatic (coming from automaton), was not widely used before 1947, when Ford established an automation department.[2] It was during this time that industry was rapidly adopting feedback controllers, which were introduced in the 1930s.


Minimum human intervention is required to control many large facilities such as this electrical generating station.

Contents
1 Open-loop and closed-loop (feedback) control
2 Control actions
2.1 Discrete control (on/off)
2.2 PID controller
2.3 Sequential control and logical sequence or system state control
2.4 Computer control
3 History
3.1 Early history
3.2 Industrial Revolution in Western Europe
3.3 20th century
3.4 Significant applications
3.5 Space/computer age
4 Advantages and disadvantages
5 Societal impact
6 Lights-out manufacturing
7 Health and environment
8 Convertibility and turnaround time
9 Automation tools
9.1 Limitations to automation
9.2 Current limitations
9.2.1 Paradox of automation
10 Cognitive automation
11 Recent and emerging applications
11.1 Automated power production
11.2 Automated retail
11.3 Automated mining
11.4 Automated video surveillance
11.5 Automated highway systems
11.6 Automated waste management
11.7 Business process automation
11.8 Home automation
11.9 Laboratory automation
11.10 Logistics automation
11.11 Industrial automation
11.11.1 Industrial Automation and Industry 4.0
11.11.2 Industrial Robotics
11.11.3 Programmable Logic Controllers
11.11.4 Agent-assisted automation
12 Relationship to unemployment
13 See also
14 References
14.1 Citations
14.2 Sources

International Journal of Control and Automation (IJCA) ISSN 2005-4297 is published by Science and Engineering Research Support Society (SERSC). The journal is open access and available electronically around the world.

Scopus Indexed Journal available at https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/21100197912  . Researchers can find the IJCA Journal Journal Home Page with Issues and Archives at  https://serscjournals.org/index.php/ijca/ 
UGC Approved Journal no. 2802 at https://www.ugc.ac.in/journallist/ IJCA is working for publication and promotion of research through https://www.ijcajournal.com/ throughout the world. Scholars are requested to submit papers for publication in Scopus Indexed and UGC Approved journal - IJCA
Email to submit Papers for publication is editor@serscjournals.org  
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