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The general purpose of speaking English

Why teaching speaking is so difficult? What are the ways to improve spoken language skills in schools, what are the vital parts of communicative competence? Compared to teaching listening skills, different techniques have been developed for the improvement of oral communication. In this digital age with the help of new AV aids devices such as computer systems, multimedia, virtual computer software speaking programs and voice chat rooms; where people try to improve their language skills across the world.

One approach of teaching speaking English is, that the learner can understand no matter how incorrect his language, while the other view insists on correctness of language ranging from grammar to pronunciation. This view is known as the fluency-oriented approach. The fluency-oriented approach believes that spoken skills are developed through meaningful communication.
What is the purpose of language?
·         The primary purpose of language is to communicate
·         To express desires and needs
·         Show personality by speaking (analyze the personality by speech) 
·         Speech enable a person to move in society
Characteristics of better speaking
·         Fluency
·         Accuracy
·         proper stress on words
·         use of proper vocabulary
·         word order
·         correct grammar
How to improve speaking in class room
Guessing Activities
 Mime (mimic): The teacher calls a student to the front and gives him a sentence, written on a piece of paper, that describes an activity.
The student mime (mimic) the activity, e.g., climbing a ladder. The other students try to guess the situation by asking questions
Information gap activities encourage learners to share information. In such
activities, one student can ask questions, the other student answers the questions

 
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teaching of English

Dialogues
Dialogues is another way of encouraging students to communicate in the class room
Dialogues give students an opportunity to use their imaginations to project themselves into new situations
Role play(Drama)
*Role play OR Drama gives chance to students to create a real life situation. *Increase the interest of students in classroom activities and speaking
Language Ladders
Language Ladders
grouped around a central concept
“Good-by” --- See you later ---Have a good day ---So long
Discussions
Select a topic that students like, one student talk at a time then other can add. Make sure everybody participate 
Songs or poems
Reading of poems in class, they hold strong appeal for children and are often memorized.
Storytelling
Storytelling involves the whole class in speaking activities.
The teacher directs the activity by asking questions like
The city of story
Who will be in the story?
What is the main theme of the story?
Teaching Pronunciation
Include pronunciation as an integral part of teaching English from the beginning
-What words and sentence need stressed in the language
Pronounce the ending of each word.
Pay special attention to 'S' & 'ED' endings.
Loud reading in class by students
Fluency & accuracy oriented approach
One view is that the speech is successful if the learner can communicate his thoughts to others; no matter how incorrect the language is, while another view insists on correctness of language, from grammar to pronunciation.
fluency-oriented approach
From this viewpoint, small grammatical or pronunciation errors are insignificant, especially in the early learning stages.
As a matter of fact it could be harmful rather than useful. hindering the natural acquisition of spoken skills
The fluency-oriented approach believes that spoken skills are developed with meaningful communication Naturally. many EFL teachers support it. 
The other is that the least amount of correction should be given, otherwise communication itself is hampered.
Errors are regarded as expected by-products observed in the natural process of development
The fluency-oriented approach, however, is not free of weaknesses. the most crucial is fossilization, errors that have become a permanent part in the way a learner speaks (Nation 1989)
Fossilized errors prevent the learner from bettering fluency, as higher accuracy is required for improving fluency in each level
accuracy-oriented approach
Stress on accuracy by pursuing mainly grammatical correctness. 
focus on repetition of newly introduced forms or grammatical structures
Learners are provided an opportunity to correct errors
 It is true that correction of errors that are provided unintentionally May discourage learners from speaking (fear of error)
But it enables learners to make sure where exactly the problem lies in their speech

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